It’s World Penguin Day!

I’m sure you’ve all got this marked down in your calendar, but it is world penguin day! So to celebrate, here are 10 facts about these beautiful birds:

1)            Some species of penguin can live up to 15 – 20 years old

2)            They spend 75% of their lives at sea

3)            Penguin biodiversity ranges from 17 – 20 species

4)            The tallest penguin, the emperor penguin, can reach the dizzy height of 3 feet 7 inches

5)            Penguins can dive further than any other bird species, the emperor penguin can dive 1,870ft for up to 22 minutes at a time

6)            A group of penguins is called a rookery

7)            They can swim at speeds of up to 25mph

8)            Penguins can survive more than 3 months without food or water

9)            The only penguin to cross the northern hemisphere is the Galapagos penguin

10)         The eyesight of penguins is far better underwater than on land

So now you’re armed with 10 fun facts about penguins, go and spread the word about world penguin day! Sadly, most of these penguins need your help to conserve them for future generations!

Haley Dolton

Advertisements

Slow Acting Pesticide To Blame For Bee Population Declines

During the past few years, you may have become aware of a decline in bee populations throughout North America and Europe. The sudden disappearance of adult bees from a nest has been termed Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) and presently has the power to seriously disrupt the environment and economy of North America and Europe.

Bees play a vital role in all environments requiring pollinators such as crops and wild flowers. Not only do they enrich the natural environment, they also provide huge economic benefits from produce such as honey, fruits and vegetables for human consumption. They certainly are busy bees, in the U.S. alone, they are estimated to provide $8-12 billion to the economy!

Professor Chensheng (Alex) Lu and his team of Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) have shown that CCD is not caused by instantaneous death of bees by predators or disease as previously thought, but by the commonly used pesticide, imidacloprid.

Imidacloprid acts slowly on a bee’s central nervous system, often leaving adults unable to return to their nest. Researchers from HSPH exposed 16 hives to differing concentrations of imidacloprid and left 4 untreated. After 12 weeks, all bees were alive, but those exposed to higher levels of imidacloprid were weaker. By 23 weeks 15 out of 16 hives exposed to imidacloprid, entered CCD presenting almost empty nests!

CCD has been affecting bee populations since high – fructose corn syrup has been used to feed bees. In 2004 – 2005 producers of corn in the U.S. started to use imidacloprid to treat crops, a year later outbreaks of CCD occurred.

This research, along with others published last week, provides a vital step towards protecting highly important bee species, for both the environment and economy.

Haley Dolton

 

Shark Produce Consumption Potentially Life Changing

It is widely known that sharks are relentlessly persecuted every year in the finning industry to provide the ‘star’ ingredient in shark fin soup popular in Asia. In addition to this, individuals wanting to increase their general health consume other shark products such as oil supplements and cartilage pills.

The shark finning industry is a lucrative business around the globe and provides a vital income to poorer areas (although the majority of any profits from distributing shark fin soup will go to the established businesses which sell it). Estimates of how many sharks are killed per year range from 70 – 100 million due to finning and by – catch. Most shark species are listed as endangered by the IUCN red list due to overfishing, reaching sexual maturity later in life and not producing many offspring during their lifetime.

Finning is an extremely cruel practice involving the removal of the fins whilst the sharks are alive and then returning them to the sea. For a species that requires its fins for locomotion to allow water to flow over its gills to breath, they are left to suffocate on the ocean floor.

Researchers at the University of Miami have discovered that shark fins (collected from living specimens of 7 species of shark) that may be intended for consumption, contained high concentrations of β-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA). BMAA is a neurotoxin that is linked to neurodegenerative diseases in humans such as Alzheimer’s and Lou Gehrig Disease (ALS), significantly reducing people’s quality of life.

This research may come as quite a shock to those that like to tuck into a bowl of shark fin soup or consume shark liver oil, as this news is potentially life changing! As for the sharks, the results from this research is obviously very encouraging for the recovery of their populations, as it could potentially mean, the banning (or higher control) of shark produce around the world because of the very high concentrations of BMAA found.

Haley Dolton

President of wildlife commission sets bad example

Daniel Richards, the president of the California Fish and Wildlife Commission, has been pictured happily posing with a dead mountain lion (Puma concolor), enraging many around the world.

Mr Richards is believed to have shot the mountain lion in Idaho where hunting big cats is legal. However, the state where his jurisdiction applies, California, has protected the mountain lion from hunters since 1990.

Many in California are now calling for Mr Richards to resign, as the general public feels someone who is meant to be protecting their wildlife, has betrayed them. Not only is the mountain lion protected in California, $30 million of state funding has been set aside to purchase important habitats shared by mountain lions and many other species. This clearly demonstrates a degree of hypocorism to what Mr Richards has done by hunting a species that he has used millions to protect.

This story highlights the sad fact that not everybody at the top of wildlife organizations are as passionate as others when it comes to the wildlife they are meant to be protecting. Not only this, Mr Richards has betrayed the trust of those that employed him and that of the public.

Haley Dolton

Burmese Pythons Devastate Mammal Populations In The Everglades


According to research published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), the invasive species, the Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus), is the cause of a devastating decline in mammals found in the Everglades, Florida.

Currently, there are no valid estimates for the population density of the Burmese python, but the number caught each year is on the increase. They are thought to have originated in the Everglades due to pet owners being unable to cope with such a large snake at home and consequently, releasing them into the wild.

Data collected in the 1990’s of road kill and live and dead animals seen on surveys, were compared with data collected (using a similar method) between 2003 – 2011. On average the snakes measured approximately 12 feet long! Due to their large size, they are capable of preying upon some of the Everglade’s endangered species such as, the Key Largo woodrat (Neotoma floridana smalli), listed as Endangered by the IUCN Red List and the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), listed as Vulnerable.

Results from this research indicate that the Burmese python is the cause of a dramatic drop in the populations of native mammals found in the Everglades. Bobcat (Lynx rufus) sightings were down by 87.5%, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) by 94.1%, Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) by 98.9%, raccoons (Procyon lotor) by 98.9% and marsh rabbits were not recorded at all! Sightings of these, and other mammals were also more common in the areas where the Burmese python has not been present for very long.

It is also important to note that the introduction of a top predator that should not be there, may be affecting the whole food chain found within the Everglades. For example, the larger mammals such as the bobcat have probably been displaced to other habitats due their prey, marsh rabbits, disappearing, rather than the Burmese python developing a sudden taste for bobcats.

The U.S. federal government is obviously very keen to try and reverse the affects of unwanted pets released into the Everglades. Importation and sale of the Burmese python, the yellow anaconda (Eunectes notaeus) and two subspecies of the African python (Python sebae), are now banned.

Hopefully, this research has highlighted the significant effect an invasive species can have on a highly important ecosystem such as the Everglades and action can be taken to preserve it and prevent similar situations arising in the future.

By Haley Dolton


Bootylicious Beyonce Horsefly Discovered

Photo courtesy of Bryan Lessard

A species of previously undescribed horsefly, held in fly collection since 1981, has been named after the singer Beyonce (Scaptia (Plinthina) beyonceae)). Mr Bryan Lessard, a researcher at Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, chose to name the fly after Beyonce due to it’s dazzling golden behind.

Some people may have experienced the painful bite of a female horsefly whilst on a countryside walk. However, it is unknown whether this species feeds on nectar, pollen or if it is a bloodsucker. This is because a specimen of this particular horsefly has not been found in the wild despite attempts made by Mr Lessard in 2010. Encouragingly, Mr Lessard did obtain anecdotal evidence from locals of northeast Queensland’s Atherton Tablelands who had been bitten from a ‘gold bum fly.’

These statements suggest the Beyonce horsefly may rely on blood as a primary food source, but until more specimens are found or the flies are observed in the wild, this is speculation.

The discovery of a new horsefly species is significant to humans (despite their tendency to give us a nasty nip) as they are fundamental pollinators of plants, ensuring the survival of necessary food chains and for the aesthetic pleasures of diverse and plentiful flora.

Mr Lessard’s choice of name will encourage others who may be fans of Beyonce, to take an interest in something they might normally ignore. This is surely a good thing for conservation and perhaps we will see additional new species named after celebrities in the future? Maybe a Rickey Gervais beetle being chased by hoard of angry Madonna birds after presenting itself cheekily, one too many times?

Haley Dolton

2011: a fantastic year for discovering new species!

Matilda’s horned viper. Photo by: Tim Davenport.

Despite some conservationists warning about the possible problems of unearthing new species to poachers in the media, their existence should celebrated by conservationists and animal lovers alike! Here is just a selection of some of the good news we have had from researchers this year:

  • Frogs the size of Tic Tacs belonging to the genus Paedophryne were discovered in Papa New Guinea
  • Three different species of pit vipers – two in Southeast Asia and the beautiful Matilda’s horned viper in Tanzania
  • A new species of bottlenose dolphin in Southeast Australia
  • The Italian sparrow was finally confirmed as a distinct species
  • A new species of titi monkey in Brazil
  • In Vietnam, researchers were shocked by the new peculiar species, the ferret – badger
  • Over 300 species of flora and fauna were described by the California Academy of Sciences and other scientific institutions in the Philippines
  • A colourful new species of mushroom in Borneo named after SpongeBob SquarePants

This is just a selection of the new species that researchers have discovered this year. With camera traps and DNA analysis becoming common practice whilst identifying new species, hopefully similar discoveries will continue throughout 2012!

Haley Dolton

WOULD YOU BUY A TATTOOED FISH?

Photo courtesy of Squish_E

The practice of tattooing fish began in 2005 using dye techniques that would eventually fade. Since 2005, tattooing techniques have evolved to allow popular phrases, hearts and even rainbows to be permanently tattooed on fish.

The lucky species of fish that is most commonly used, is the tropical parrotfish. This is because they are relatively large and have a high survival rate after tattooing. Since tattooing techniques have improved, the practice is spreading to other smaller, less hardy species such as goldfish.

Tattooed fish have become very popular in China and Vietnam because they are believed to bring good luck. For example, one of the popular tattooed phrases in China reads, “May your business boom” in English. They are now commonly sold in the USA for the pet trade, but also to businesses who wish to write a nice message to their customers using this dynamic sketchpad.

Fish without tattoos can cost around £1.00, whereas tattooed fish, fetch around £2.50. As a relatively cheap technique done en masse, tattooed fish can provide a good return on investments made by pet shop owners. Designs are tattooed on the fish by either using dyes inserted via injection (taking up to half a year to develop) or by low intensity lasers. Distributors of tattooed fish claim that no harm comes to any of the fish during tattooing.

However, tattooed fish have a low survival rate, hence the stronger parrotfish being the most popular choice for vendors. In addition to this, lasers and injections damage a protective surface layer on the fish, leaving them prone to infections. There have also been instances of viruses spreading in populations of tattooed fish due to the unhygienic use of needles.

Legislative bodies are still deliberating whether this unnecessarily cruel practice should be made illegal or not. Raising the awareness of the general public will hopefully decrease this practice in western cultures. Surely most people would agree, these fish are naturally beautiful and do not need potentially harmful designs to make them appealing.

Haley Dolton

 

KILLER WHALES VISIT CORNWALL

Photo courtesy of Alan Vernon

Every summer in the UK, there will undoubtedly be a story in the news regarding a great white shark being spotted off the Cornish coast. These stories are reported in the peak of the summer holidays, scaring the tourists that were brave enough to venture into our chilly seas, to stay firmly on land. Hopefully, the general public will react positively to the news of a mother and calf killer whale duo, being spotted 100 metres off the Cornish coast.

It is widely known that killer whales are present in Scotland’s waters and during the summer, they venture closer to shore around Shetland, Orkney and Caithness. For the rest of the year, it is hypothesized that pods of killer whales follow the migration of mackerel around Scotland to gain a reliable food source, in addition to larger prey such as seals.

The killer whales spotted off the Cornish coast, could belong to the same pods in Scotland, but why have they travelled south? It could be due to the extremely high population of seals found in both Devon and Cornwall, providing a very attractive food source for hungry killer whales. In fact, there has been an instance of killer whales preying upon a basking shark, a species that frequents the Devon and Cornish waters every year. This shows killer whales are no strangers to migrating further south from Scotland to obtain vital food.

Hopefully, the public will react positively to this news without shouting the dolphin equivalent of; “JAWS!” and causing panic within the community that use the sea for financial and recreational purposes. Although they are apex predators, a wild killer whale has never killed a human and if we don’t bother them, they are very unlikely to cause harm to us.

This sighting highlights the diversity of the UK’s fauna and must be very exciting news for the killer whale researchers based in Scotland. It may stimulate new research, due to possibly highlighting an unknown migration route for killer whales.

So don’t be afraid of this news, grab your binoculars and head down south for a chance to see one of natures beautiful, top predators cruising around.

Haley Dolton

X FACTOR OF THE ANIMAL WORLD

With all the hype of the X Factor in the media every week, a comparison between the talent of the natural world and the individuals that will appear on the show can offer an interesting comparison!

Mimic – each year a contestant will try and impersonate their favourite singer on the show for maximum effect. However, they are never going to be as good as mimicking abilities of the lyrebird which is endemic to Australia. Of all the passerines, the lyrebird has the most complex musculature surrounding the syrinx allowing this species to imitate a variety of natural and man made sounds including car alarms and chainsaws.

Loudest – some of the characters on the X Factor do not suffer from shyness in terms of their singing volume and neither does the blue whale. The blue whale call can reach up to approximately 188 decibels and can travel for hundreds of miles underwater. That is the equivalent of the noise produced by a rocket launch pad. If humans stood near to this without ear protection the noise would cause irreversible damage to our hearing.

Specialist – the occasional contestant will try and do something different during their audition to get noticed including rapping and beat boxing. An army of frogs all croaking at alternating times may give the beat boxers a run for their money as different pitches and styles are combined. The sound is produced via a space in the throat called the glottis which is surrounded by the vocal chords and arytenoid cartilage. The loud noise reverberates around the expanding vocal sac causing the croak to become louder.

Sounds to make you shudder – during the first few weeks of the X Factor, there will be plenty of contestants who think they can sing resulting in cutting comments from the judges. Vocalisations from some species have the same affect on people such as a cockerel crow or a noisy dog living next door to you. The near – threatened aye – aye gets a raw deal if it is heard in its native Madagascar due to superstitions. Indigenous people think of the aye – aye as a symbol of death and as a consequence, they will dispatch of any if they are seen or heard.

Surprising sound from an unlikely source – many auditions show macho men singing in high pitched tones or beautiful opera performed from an unexpected individual. In nature, various species also make surprising noises. A rabbit will generate a high pitched squeal when in distress and cheetahs make a chirping noise, quite dissimilar to the roar of most big cats. This chirp is a very intense noise and can be heard approximately one mile away!

By Haley Dolton