2011: a fantastic year for discovering new species!

Matilda’s horned viper. Photo by: Tim Davenport.

Despite some conservationists warning about the possible problems of unearthing new species to poachers in the media, their existence should celebrated by conservationists and animal lovers alike! Here is just a selection of some of the good news we have had from researchers this year:

  • Frogs the size of Tic Tacs belonging to the genus Paedophryne were discovered in Papa New Guinea
  • Three different species of pit vipers – two in Southeast Asia and the beautiful Matilda’s horned viper in Tanzania
  • A new species of bottlenose dolphin in Southeast Australia
  • The Italian sparrow was finally confirmed as a distinct species
  • A new species of titi monkey in Brazil
  • In Vietnam, researchers were shocked by the new peculiar species, the ferret – badger
  • Over 300 species of flora and fauna were described by the California Academy of Sciences and other scientific institutions in the Philippines
  • A colourful new species of mushroom in Borneo named after SpongeBob SquarePants

This is just a selection of the new species that researchers have discovered this year. With camera traps and DNA analysis becoming common practice whilst identifying new species, hopefully similar discoveries will continue throughout 2012!

Haley Dolton

WOULD YOU BUY A TATTOOED FISH?

Photo courtesy of Squish_E

The practice of tattooing fish began in 2005 using dye techniques that would eventually fade. Since 2005, tattooing techniques have evolved to allow popular phrases, hearts and even rainbows to be permanently tattooed on fish.

The lucky species of fish that is most commonly used, is the tropical parrotfish. This is because they are relatively large and have a high survival rate after tattooing. Since tattooing techniques have improved, the practice is spreading to other smaller, less hardy species such as goldfish.

Tattooed fish have become very popular in China and Vietnam because they are believed to bring good luck. For example, one of the popular tattooed phrases in China reads, “May your business boom” in English. They are now commonly sold in the USA for the pet trade, but also to businesses who wish to write a nice message to their customers using this dynamic sketchpad.

Fish without tattoos can cost around £1.00, whereas tattooed fish, fetch around £2.50. As a relatively cheap technique done en masse, tattooed fish can provide a good return on investments made by pet shop owners. Designs are tattooed on the fish by either using dyes inserted via injection (taking up to half a year to develop) or by low intensity lasers. Distributors of tattooed fish claim that no harm comes to any of the fish during tattooing.

However, tattooed fish have a low survival rate, hence the stronger parrotfish being the most popular choice for vendors. In addition to this, lasers and injections damage a protective surface layer on the fish, leaving them prone to infections. There have also been instances of viruses spreading in populations of tattooed fish due to the unhygienic use of needles.

Legislative bodies are still deliberating whether this unnecessarily cruel practice should be made illegal or not. Raising the awareness of the general public will hopefully decrease this practice in western cultures. Surely most people would agree, these fish are naturally beautiful and do not need potentially harmful designs to make them appealing.

Haley Dolton

 

KILLER WHALES VISIT CORNWALL

Photo courtesy of Alan Vernon

Every summer in the UK, there will undoubtedly be a story in the news regarding a great white shark being spotted off the Cornish coast. These stories are reported in the peak of the summer holidays, scaring the tourists that were brave enough to venture into our chilly seas, to stay firmly on land. Hopefully, the general public will react positively to the news of a mother and calf killer whale duo, being spotted 100 metres off the Cornish coast.

It is widely known that killer whales are present in Scotland’s waters and during the summer, they venture closer to shore around Shetland, Orkney and Caithness. For the rest of the year, it is hypothesized that pods of killer whales follow the migration of mackerel around Scotland to gain a reliable food source, in addition to larger prey such as seals.

The killer whales spotted off the Cornish coast, could belong to the same pods in Scotland, but why have they travelled south? It could be due to the extremely high population of seals found in both Devon and Cornwall, providing a very attractive food source for hungry killer whales. In fact, there has been an instance of killer whales preying upon a basking shark, a species that frequents the Devon and Cornish waters every year. This shows killer whales are no strangers to migrating further south from Scotland to obtain vital food.

Hopefully, the public will react positively to this news without shouting the dolphin equivalent of; “JAWS!” and causing panic within the community that use the sea for financial and recreational purposes. Although they are apex predators, a wild killer whale has never killed a human and if we don’t bother them, they are very unlikely to cause harm to us.

This sighting highlights the diversity of the UK’s fauna and must be very exciting news for the killer whale researchers based in Scotland. It may stimulate new research, due to possibly highlighting an unknown migration route for killer whales.

So don’t be afraid of this news, grab your binoculars and head down south for a chance to see one of natures beautiful, top predators cruising around.

Haley Dolton

X FACTOR OF THE ANIMAL WORLD

With all the hype of the X Factor in the media every week, a comparison between the talent of the natural world and the individuals that will appear on the show can offer an interesting comparison!

Mimic – each year a contestant will try and impersonate their favourite singer on the show for maximum effect. However, they are never going to be as good as mimicking abilities of the lyrebird which is endemic to Australia. Of all the passerines, the lyrebird has the most complex musculature surrounding the syrinx allowing this species to imitate a variety of natural and man made sounds including car alarms and chainsaws.

Loudest – some of the characters on the X Factor do not suffer from shyness in terms of their singing volume and neither does the blue whale. The blue whale call can reach up to approximately 188 decibels and can travel for hundreds of miles underwater. That is the equivalent of the noise produced by a rocket launch pad. If humans stood near to this without ear protection the noise would cause irreversible damage to our hearing.

Specialist – the occasional contestant will try and do something different during their audition to get noticed including rapping and beat boxing. An army of frogs all croaking at alternating times may give the beat boxers a run for their money as different pitches and styles are combined. The sound is produced via a space in the throat called the glottis which is surrounded by the vocal chords and arytenoid cartilage. The loud noise reverberates around the expanding vocal sac causing the croak to become louder.

Sounds to make you shudder – during the first few weeks of the X Factor, there will be plenty of contestants who think they can sing resulting in cutting comments from the judges. Vocalisations from some species have the same affect on people such as a cockerel crow or a noisy dog living next door to you. The near – threatened aye – aye gets a raw deal if it is heard in its native Madagascar due to superstitions. Indigenous people think of the aye – aye as a symbol of death and as a consequence, they will dispatch of any if they are seen or heard.

Surprising sound from an unlikely source – many auditions show macho men singing in high pitched tones or beautiful opera performed from an unexpected individual. In nature, various species also make surprising noises. A rabbit will generate a high pitched squeal when in distress and cheetahs make a chirping noise, quite dissimilar to the roar of most big cats. This chirp is a very intense noise and can be heard approximately one mile away!

By Haley Dolton